NIM and intelligence
NIM and statistics
Dysfunction of NIM
The role of Principal Analysts
Legal Status of NIM
What then must be done?
Copyright notice: text from this website may be reproduced freely, so long as IntelligenceAnalysis.net is quoted as the source
About this website
This section will show how statistics have been imported into intelligence analysts' job descriptions.Lancashire Constabulary - Intelligence Analyst (August 2007)
From the outset, the Job Purpose laid down by Lancashire Police is that the intelligence analyst is to provide tactical and strategic products for managerial and investigative purposes. Thus, half of a job that is described as intelligence is in fact statistical.
As explained previously, NIM's uses the words strategic and tactical to mean statistics and investigation/intelligence, respectively. The above paragraph, however, reverts to meaning strategic and tactical levels. This conflicts with the above Job Profile which refers to "tactical and strategic products". The statement "linking offences and identifying themes" is also contradictory; it should either be "linking offences and identifying offenders" or "categorising offences and identifying themes".
This sweeps away any ambiguity or pretence; the intelligence analyst is expected to produce management information.
The above represents Lancashire Constabulary's candidate specifications. Experience of statistical presentation is a requirement of both the application form and pre-interview assessment; yet, knowledge of intelligence is not, the implication being that only applicants with statistical experience will get an interview. Similarly, experience of "patterns and trends" (i.e. statistics) is placed in the "essential" column, while experience of analysing individuals (i.e. intelligence) is given the lesser grade of "desirable".West Midlands - Intelligence Analyst (July 2008)
The first two highlighted parts refer to providing strategic assessments and identifying problems and solutions. The job description then changes direction by requiring the analyst to identify offenders and liaise with other forces on cross border crime. It switches back to statistics, requiring the "assessing of impact strategies", then back to investigation again by requiring the postholder to appear in court. The hopelessly flawed nature of the job description is summed up in the final line where it specifies training in "Anacapa, Social Sciences".
Surrey Police - Junior Intelligence Analyst
Point 2.2 of the job description says that the post is aimed at senior managers and ACPO ranks; it is therefore not related to specific investigations or intelligence gathering. Yet, point 2.5 states the opposite, that the post is related to investigations. As if to underline the absurdity, Surrey Police job advertisments declare: "We've not just seen the light - we're shining it"
Avon and Somerset Constabulary - Senior Criminal Intelligence Analyst (August 2008)
This extract says the successful applicant for the position of senior criminal intelligence analyst is expected to have "detailed knowledge" of statistical analysis techniques and programmes, and is likely to have a statistical degree. How such a qualification assists in "criminal intelligence" is not explained.
Nottinghamshire Police - Intelligence Analyst
The following extract is a succinct illustration of the problem police forces make of distinguishing crime statistics from actual people and events:
The extract is equating statistics and finance on the basis they are both "numerical information". The reality is that an amount of money is a tangible commodity, like a quantity of cocaine, or stolen car stereos, whereas a statistic is a notional quantity based on an average. To believe that the two are comparable because they are both numbers provides a delightful insight into the flawed thinking of NIM.
Intelligence Analysis job descriptions across the UK
Below are extracts from job descriptions from other UK police forces, each demonstrating the failure or refusal to implement the division of intelligence and statistics. Text from the extracts is highlighted green for intelligence and red for statistics. Links are provided to the source documents for the reader's further scrutiny.
Durham Constabulary - Intelligence Analyst (June 2007)
"It is anticipated that candidates have ... advanced numerical skills, e.g. the use of complex statistical and/or algebraic formulae, forecasting, use of alternative number systems ... 1. To undertake Strategic Analysis in support of the Force Strategic Assessment and other intelligence products, as required by the Force Control Strategy and other priority issues ... Producing Problem Profiles, or other strategic products, in relation to priority areas as required by the T&CG. 2. To undertake operational analysis in support of Level 2 and/or Major Crime operations. To negotiate with the SIO the Terms of Reference for analytical work ... To provide analytical products for court as required by the particular operation, including analytical charts and statements. To give evidence in court in relation to analytical work if required. 3. To undertake tactical analysis in support of Level 2 intelligence and operational development ... To provide tactical analysis with regard to target and problem profiles as required by the T&CG; To provide tactical analysis to assist in the identification and ongoing intelligence development of Organised Crime Groups" (link)
"To analyse a wide and varied range of data within an intelligence led and problem solving environment on crime and criminal activity, in order to establish links, patterns and trends relating to offences and suspects 2. Evaluate, read and collate information received from various sources and apply analytical techniques as appropriate, i.e. case analysis, activity charting, telephone analysis, crime pattern analysis etc. to support operational units by providing timely and accurate intelligence. 3. Examine the nature and development of criminal activity in specific areas over a period of time to identify pattern and sequences of activity to assist in the targeting of resources... 5. Prepare accurate link/association diagrams to explain complex relationships between individuals, activities, premises etc. in order that they can be easily understood by investigating officers, solicitors, counsel and other recipients. 6. Understand and operate a wide variety of different IT software and applications to retrieve data, compare it, analyse it and produce operational and management information. 7. Attendance, when required, at Crown and Magistrates Courts as a witness to present and qualify findings. 10. Compile reports/profiles on criminals identified as being of particular prominence 11. Give oral briefings to senior officers or officers with an interest in the investigation to provide a clear, concise update on all the key facts The analyst role plays a key part in the provision of operational and management information that influences resource deployment and investigations Must have previous experience in the application of analysis techniques such as case analysis, activity charting, link diagrams etc " (link)Cumbria Constabulary - Area Senior / Strategic Intelligence Analyst (Feb 2006)
Analyse a wide range of data, information and intelligence on crime and law enforcement matters and present the results. Identifying links between suspected offenders and committed crimes. Provide forecasts and develop targeting strategies in relation to crime and general law enforcement initiatives and crime reduction. Assist in the production and servicing of Strategic Intelligence Requirements, contributing to the management decision making process on the deployment of police resources. 2.1 Assist the Detective Sergeant - AIC, with the construction of strategic Level 1 NIM Intelligence & Analytical Products including BCU Strategic Assessments, Problem Profiles, Market & Criminal Business Profiles, and assist with other provisions for an effective and efficient information/intelligence service from the Intelligence Unit. 2.2 To undertake complex research and analysis, at both strategic and tactical levels, aimed at linking offences and identifying themes, trends and patterns to support a diverse range of operational activities. 2.3 To provide support to Senior Investigating Officers and Major Incident Teams with the analysis and review of information as required 2.6 Analyse the associated networks of identified targets and human intelligence sources. 2.7 To undertake a range of strategic projects at either Area or Constabulary level, liasing with external agencies and other Constabulary personnel, as required 2.11 Provide statistical information in support of targeted deployment of operational staff. 2.12 Give evidence at judicial proceeding or compile a legal statement for submission to court as a Law Enforcement Professional ... The post is responsible ensuring the production of the Area 'hot spot' and 'crime series' presentations to meet the needs of Local Policing Teams Possess a Degree with a statistical and/or mathematical bias or have equivalent 3+ years of data analysis experience ... Willing to undertake periods extended training and detraction within or outside the Force Area as and when required (including attending Major Incident Investigations at short notice) ... Recognised Intelligence or Crime Analysis training qualification (e.g. ANACAPA, CPA, NIAT, etc). Postgraduate Qualification in related research field (e.g. G.I.S, Statistics, Social Science, etc) (link)
Essex Police - Criminal Intelligence Analyst (July 2007)
To support intelligence operations in accordance with the Essex Police Control Strategy and Policing Plan through the timely delivery of National Intelligence Model products that inform the decision making process. ... 2. Establish possible links between suspected offenders and committed crimes, illustrating evidential connections within criminal investigations, providing intelligence briefings, presentations and recommendations in order to assist with the planning of local and Force wide crime reduction initiatives and operations. 3. Analyse relationships between different entities to establish hierarchy and structure to identify intervention points, information gaps and further information requirements to facilitate the disruption of criminal or other related activities. 4. Develop and undertake strategic projects in respect of emerging trends identified by the Essex Police Threat Assessment, in order to facilitate the targeting and investigation of criminal activities that will inform local and Force management and enable effective business planning. This will include the provision of medium, long term and seasonal trends which will contribute to the setting of the Divisional and Force Strategic Intelligence Requirement. 5. Provide analytical support to Divisional and Major investigations as directed by the Principal Analyst and Senior Investigating Officer. 6. Assist with the identification of cross border crime series analysis in order to exchange and obtain intelligence information. ... 10. Attend Court as an expert witness (link)
Central Scotland Police - Crime Intelligence Analyst (January 2008)
Supporting the implementation of the National Intelligence Model ... you will be responsible for providing an overarching view of issues and trends effecting Central Scotland Police ... analyse patterns, develop links and identify trends through the application of appropriate analytical methodology. 2. Identify links between suspected offenders and committed crimes ... Research all relevant information systems, communicate with outside agencies and provide analysis with a view to formulating target packages on active criminals, identification of crime hot spots and crime series ... Make recommendations based on [NIM] products to aid in investigations and operational activity. 8. Assist with the completion of the Force Strategic Assessment. 9. Produce intelligence and evidential analytical charts, diagrams and maps by studying and interpreting the data collected and having an understanding of the rules of evidence and intelligence standards for the recording of dissemination of intelligence material ... 12. Prepare statistical information reports in connection with intelligence and Scottish Performance Framework ... Prepare evidential and intelligence charts and reports whilst working as part of a Major Investigation team (link)
Tayside Police - Intelligence Analyst (March 2007)
"Provide information to assist operational management in selecting targets, guiding investigations, hotspot management and crime reduction and prevention measures to determine priorities, allocation of resources and business planning, internally and externally Research all relevant information systems and provide analysis with a view to formulating target packages on active criminals, identification of crime hot spots and crime series for both outside agencies and various units of Tayside Police... 3. Formulate inferences from volume intelligence and identify lines of enquiry and information gaps. Present findings in the form of written reports, charts and formal briefings. Identify links between suspected offenders and committed crimes ... 5. Produce and design intelligence charts, diagrams and maps by studying and interpreting data collected applying understanding of the rules of evidence 7. Carry out research and analysis to highlight longer term issues for inclusion in Strategic Assessment document, as outlined in the National Intelligence Model, to assist with identifying priorities for control strategies ... 12. Prepare statistical information and reports in connection with outcomes of strategies ... 15. If required, prepare and submit statements in relation to the resource material and attend Court if necessary ... Experience in preparing reports, producing statistics ... essential" (link)Sussex Police - Criminal Intelligence Analyst (December 2007)
Analyse information from both computerised and manual sources, relating to reported crime, criminal intelligence, policing activities and crime reduction methods to examine specific types of crimes, in a specific area, and/or over a specific period of time; b) identify patterns and sequences of activity; indicate further lines of enquiry available, and highlight information gaps compare information on similar incidents to identify series offenders organise available information on known offender groups to gain insights into group structures and roles Provide analytical support to major incident rooms communicate the objectives and benefits of analysis, the techniques used to produce information, and how it assists managers with decision making on deployment of staff; Maintain liaison with other Divisions and Forces in relation to travelling offenders in order to maintain up to date information on such individuals (link)
Thames Valley - Crime Analyst (July 2007)
"To provide analytical support to assist the Force and the TTCG in respect of crime patterns, crime trends, hot spots and offender details to identify established or emerging crime series. Provide analytical support to assist prevention initiatives, targeting, disruption and detection of crime Identify suspects and analyse the activities of individuals, groups and organisations through the application of recognised analytical techniques and methodology ... Contribute to the production of Target and Problem profiles to support the decision making process at both strategic and tactical level to inform decisions and direct business activity Ensure the analysis of communications data complies with RIPA, DPA and ECHR legislation experience of statistical methods essential" (link)British Transport Police - Crime Analyst (Jan 2008)
"To gather analysis and interpret data from Force Areas and external sources. To provide high quality analytical products including those stipulated by the National Intelligence Model (NIM) to create a national tactical and strategic picture for Level 2 Tasking and Co-ordination ... Develop ideas about the nature of suspected Level 2 criminals and direct officers in intelligence gathering to assist in the development of intelligence and/or the investigation of crime ... 1. Strategic analysis is designed to influence the long-term resources and policy decisions which will be reflected within the Policing Plan. The production of a Force Strategic Assessment drives the Force Strategic Tasking and Co-ordinating Group in business and force-wide planning ... 2. Tactical analysis provides direction to proactive policing and investigations influencing tactics and resource decision making. The production of a Force Tactical Assessment evaluates current progress, determines resource allocation, supports business planning and informs senior managers. Tactical analysis will also provide strategic analysis with detailed insights. 3. This is still a developing role within the Force ..." (link)
|Next > Training|